十个有趣的英文文字游戏(上)

Crossword
    Crossword我就不用多废话了,这应该是最流行的英文文字游戏。和大多数人想象的不同,构造一个Crossword谜题非常难。真正的Crossword谜题里的空格比你想象的更多,整个填字区域要做到中心对称,而且通常每个Crossword需要有一个特定的主题。去年有一个记录片叫Wordplay,很不错(我给它打了8分)。记录片里介绍了很多和Crossword有关的文化,包括出谜人、解谜人、俱乐部、比赛等很多内容。
    下面是一个以数学为主题的Crossword,大家没事可以做做。答案在本文最后面。

  
Across

1. Cut corners
5. The __ plane, or S(7)
9. Hydrogen
14. Large reptile
16. Column
17. Gives the slope of a tangent to a curve
19. Book by Zienkiewicz and Taylor, abbr.
20. Divide
21. Sin reciprocal
22. The playing field, in nim
25. "I saw Blanusa's paper __ after it appeared." — Tutte
26. pronoun
27. Hydroxyl group bonded to a doubly-bonded carbon atom
28. (e^z – e^(-z))/2
29. Bar
30. The sphinx is a __-tile
31. __-digit
32. Fit
35. A type of map projection
38. The ___ hypothesis is independent of Zermelo-Fraenkel-Choice
39. Floor coverings, frequently symmetrical
40. Graph theorist Hai Peng
41. Angle
42. Branch or Dedekind
43. Math __ (where to find a prof)
44. 2, 4, 6, 30, 32, 34, 36, 40, 42 …
46. Art __
47. Computer Algebra: Systems and Algorithms for Algebraic Computation editor
48. MAA president Graham
49. Rule
50. As opposed to LHS
51. The gamma function has these at negative integers
57. Puzzle creator van Deventer
58. Tries
59. Paris river
60. Philosopher Descartes
61. Charts

Down

1. Saturnine
2. Director of Ulugh Beg's observatory
3. 3-30 KHz, as heard by "whistler" receivers
4. An OOPL or tower.
5. Plow
6. Supped
7. Proof of existance, without a specific example
8. Hermite orthogonal polynomial
9. Stat
10. GTE rival
11. Quasi-conformal enemy of Edmund Landau
12. (23/9)^5 and 109, for example
13. Ergo
15. Pilot stunt: "pulling ___"
18. Faraday theory, later proven by Arrhenius
22. Peace prize winner Shimon
23. J of ___ and Appl
24. The Inverse Variational Problem in Classical Mechanics author
25. The "sampling" function
26. A searching method for Ramsey numbers
28. "What I give form to in daylight is only one per cent of what I have __ in darkness." — Escher
29. boxers
31. High school math
32. Add-with-carry, inverse congruential, rule 30, dice, etc.
33. Chaos and Fractals author Dietmar
34. Graphica author Michael
36. ICOSAHOM editor Andrew
37. Focus, for example
42. Triangle part studied by Kimberling
43. In anatomy, away from the origin
44. More than 1500 math papers have his name
45. Where Set theory: On the structure of the real line was written
46. Actor Knotts
47. Number theorist Peter
49. Sported
50. Theorem
52. Cylinder
53. O'__ group (order 460815505920)
54. Skater Midori
55. Mind plotter
56. It's better than angle-angle-side

Anagram
    Anagram是指调整一个单词或短语的字母顺序后组成另外一个单词或短语,通常前后两者的关系有点讽刺意味。比如,《达芬奇密码》上就有一个:
    O, Draconian devil! Oh, lame saint! = Leonardo da Vinci, The Mona Lisa

    经典的Anagram非常有意思。看下面几个Anagram:
    Listen = Silent
    Dormitory = Dirty Room
    Desperation = A Rope Ends It
    Mother-in-law = Woman Hitler
    A telephone girl = Repeating "Hello"
    The country side = No City Dust Here

    一些Anagram有可能很长。比如这一个:
    To be or not to be: that is the question, whether tis nobler in the mind to suffer the slings and arrows of outrageous fortune.
    = In one of the Bard's best-thought-of tragedies, our insistent hero, Hamlet, queries on two fronts about how life turns rotten.

    另一个有趣的Anagram是这样:
    Eleven plus two = Twelve plus one

Pangram
    Pangram是指这样一种句子,它虽然不长,但包含了所有26个英文字母。Pangram常用于打字机测试和字体演示。大家最熟悉不过的是Windows字体演示时所用的Pangram:
    The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.

    而Macintosh的字体演示则是使用的这个Pangram:
    Cozy lummox gives smart squid who asks for job pen.

    另一个比较常见的Pangram如下:
    Pack my box with five dozen liquor jugs.

    当然,有人肯定想问,有没有最短的Pangram?当然有。有的Pangram只有26个字母(每个字母恰好用一次),这样的Pangram叫做Perfect pangram。比如下面这一个:
    New job: fix Mr. Gluck's hazy TV, PDQ!

Autogram
    Autogram又叫做Self-enumerating Sentence,是指一句话的内容描述的正是这句话本身。下面是一些常见的Autogram:
    This sentence contains five words.
    This sentence contains thirty-six letters.
    There are fourteen vowels in this sentence.

    1982年,Scientific American月刊上刊登出一个Autogram杰作:

Only the fool would take trouble to verify that his sentence was composed of ten a's, three b's, four c's, four d's, forty-six e's, sixteen f's, four g's, thirteen h's, fifteen i's, two k's, nine l's, four m's, twenty-five n's, twenty-four o's, five p's, sixteen r's, forty-one s's, thirty-seven t's, ten u's, eight v's, eight w's, four x's, eleven y's, twenty-seven commas, twenty-three apostrophes, seven hyphens and, last but not least, a single !

    另一个类似的Autogram如下:

This autogram contains five a's, one b, two c's, two d's, thirty-one e's, five f's, five g's, eight h's, twelve i's, one j, one k, two l's, two m's, eighteen n's, sixteen o's, one p, one q, six r's, twenty-seven s's, twenty-one t's, three u's, seven v's, eight w's, three x's, four y's, and one z.

Palindrome
    Palindrome是指这样一种单词或句子,从左往右和从右往左读都是一样的。例如,单词eye, noon, level, racecar, redivider都是Palindrome。一些比较长的句子也可能是Palindrome,比如USACO上曾出现过这样一个Palindrome:
    Madam, I'm Adam.

    另一些有趣的Palindrome如下:
    Never odd or even.
    Was it a cat I saw?
    Step on no pets!
    Dammit, I'm mad!
    Rise to vote, sir.
&nbs
p;   God lived as a devil dog.
    A man, a plan, a canal — Panama!

    1814年,当拿破仑被流放到Elba岛时,拿破仑曾说过:
    Able was I ere I saw Elba.

    这里有一份号称世上最长的Palindrome。

Alphamagic Square
    1986年,一个叫Lee Sallows的电子工程师发现了这样一个3阶幻方:
5       22      18
28      15      2
12      8       25

    初看之下这个幻方似乎没有什么特别之处。然而,把它转换成文字后:
five            twenty-two      eighteen
twenty-eight    fifteen         two
twelve          eight           twenty-five

    再数一下每个单词的字母个数,我们可以得到一个新的幻方,它恰好由3到11这9个数字组成:
4       9       8
11      7       3
6       5       10

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